breakfast is not an effective way
to lose weight. Researchers investigated the relationship between
breakfast type, energy intake and body mass index (BMI). They found
that it's not just breakfast but the type of food eaten that is
connected with BMI.
is a risk factor for
cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, high blood pressure,
and type 2 diabetes. From 1960 to 1994 obesity in American adults
almost doubled from 12.8% to 22.5%. At the same time, between 1965 and
1991, the proportion of adults skipping breakfast increased from 14% to
25%. Some of the reasons people give for skipping breakfast include
lack of time for preparing and consuming food, and concerns about
excess body weight.
inverse relationship has been found
between BMI and breakfast consumption. Breakfast eaters tend to have
lower BMI than those who skip breakfast, and obese individuals are more
likely to skip breakfast. It has been found that moderately obese women
lose more weight when they consume 70% of their daily energy intake
before noon instead of in the afternoon or evening.
from the Third National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey (N HANES III), a large
study conducted in the United States, 1988-1994, was analyzed for
breakfast type, total daily energy intake, and BMI. There were several
categories studied, "skippers" (people who skip breakfast),
"meat/eggs," "ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC)," "cooked cereal," "breads,"
"quick breads" (e.g. waffles, French toast), "fruit/vegetables,"
"dairy," "fats/sweets," and "beverages." Other factors taken into
consideration were age, gender, race, smoking, alcohol intake, physical
activity and socio-economic status.
researchers found those who ate
ready-to-eat cereal, cooked cereal, or quick breads for breakfast had a
significantly lower BMI compared to the skippers and the meat/eggs
eaters. The skippers and fruit/vegetable eaters had the lowest daily
energy intake and meat/egg eaters had the highest daily energy intake.
The skippers, meat/eggs eaters, and dairy eaters had the highest BMIs.